Indian Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis ‘s fruits and leaves …Trái và lá của cây Mắm đen …
Regrowing hair

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Chụp hình ở huyện Cần Giờ, thuộc thành phố Hồ chí Minh ( Saigon ),miền Nam Vietnam, Cách Saigon 50 km.

Taken in Cần Giờ district, Hồ chí MInh city, South Vietnam. 50 km from Hồ chí Minh city ( Saigon )

Vietnamese named : Mắm đen
Common names : Indian Mangrove
Scientist name : Avicennia officinalis L.
Synonyms :
Family : Acanthaceae ( Họ Ô-rô ) và Verbenaceae / Avicennia .( Họ Cỏ Roi Ngựa / chi Mắm )

Links :

**** www.mekonginfo.org/mrc_en/contact.nsf/0/8902a71a698a3de18…
Avicennia officinalis L.
AVICENNIACEAE
Mấm Ðen, Mấm Râu (Cà Mau)

Hình dáng : Cây cao 20m, đường kính đến 0,7m, thân hình trụ, tương đối suôn, có khi thẳng tốt với thân trụ cao 6 – 10m, cành non có lông tơ trơn, vỏ mỏng không nứt màu xám đen, rễ phổi hình đũa, thường chia đôi.

Lá : Lá đơn, mọc đối, đầu tròn lúc cây còn nhỏ, sau có hình trứng ngược, dài 6 – 8cm, rộng 2,5 – 4cm, chân nêm, bìa lá thường cuốn xuống, mặt trên xanh, trơn, mặt dưới có lông rất mịn, sát, màu vàng hung; gân rõ, các đầu gân phụ cong ở đầu, nối với bìa, cuống lá trơn dài 0,5 – 1cm.

Hoa :
Hoa nhỏ, 10mm, vàng, có mùi thơm, hợp thành phát hoa kép dày ở ngọn, thường có 3 nhánh hoa, mỗi hoa có lá bắc phụ nhỏ hình bầu dục, có lông tơ; đài hoa không rụng, lớn, các tai đài bằng nhau, hình bầu dục, có lông trắng mịn ở dưới thấp, dài 5 – 6mm, màu đen, vành hoa lớn, hình ống, dài bằng đài, màu vàng cam, ngoài trơn, dài 2 – 4mm, dính ở dưới, trên có 4 thùy không bằng nhau rụng sớm; 4 tiểu nhị, bầu noãn hình nón, có lông trắng mịn; vòi nhụy hình sợi dài trắng, có lông rậm, đầu nhụy chẻ hai, uốn cong.

Trái :Trái là manh nang hình trứng gốc tròn, đầu có mũi nhọn, dài 2 – 3cm có khi đến 3,8cm. Mầm xanh đỏ dợt, vỏ đầy lông vàng mịn; 01 hột, không phôi nhũ, nẩy mầm trước khi trái rụng.

Nơi sống :
Rừng sát Việt Nam (Cà Mau, Long Hải) Pakistan, Ấn Ðộ, Myanma, Philippin, Malaixia, Inđônexia, Nouvelle Guinee, Saloman, Caroline … là loại cây ưa sáng,sinh trưởng nhanh, thuộc loại chịu đất kiềm, thích nghi với các loại đất (bùn, cát, sét) và các độ mặn của nước (mặn, lợ, ngọt), cho chồi gốc. Tại Cà Mau, cây trổ hoa vào đầu mùa mưa (4 – 6 dương lịch), cho trái vào cuối mùa mưa (9 – 11 dương lịch), vài giờ sau khi rụng, cây mầm hút nước lớn ra, làm vỡ lớp vỏ trái bao ngoài, thường chiếm những diện tích mới bồi ven biển, mực thủy triều lên xuống hàng ngày … Nói chung "Ðất bùn có nước triều lên xuống hàng ngày" là đất sinh trưởng, phát triển thích hợp của loài cây gỗ này. Tại Cà Mau, cây cao đến, 22 – 25m với đường kính 15 – 20cm.

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BA%AFm_%C4%91en

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**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Avicennia_officin…
Avicennia officinalis L.

Avicenniaceae
Indian mangrove

Uses

The wood, used to construct boats, houses, and wharves has been studied as a pulp source, and the bark and roots are used for tanning. The bark is used for dying cloth, the ash for washing it in India (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). Javanese and others may consume the bitter fruits and seeds after rather elaborate processing. Branches are lopped and given to cattle for fodder. The wood has been recommended for creosoted paving blocks. Its wood is attractive enough of grain to be useful in cabinetry.
Folk Medicine

According to Hartwell (1967–1971), the fruits are plastered onto tumors in India. Indian mangrove is a folk remedy for boils and tumors (Duke and Wain, 1981). Kirtikar and Basu (1975) suggest that the roots are aphrodisiac. Unripe seeds are poulticed onto abscesses, boils, and smallpox sores. Indochinese use the bark for skin afflictions, especially scabies. According to Perry (1980), quoting other sources, "A resinous substance exuded from the bark acts as a contraceptive, and apparently can be taken all year long without ill effects. Philippines use the seed for ulcers, the resin for snakebite."
Chemistry

Tanganyikan wood specimens (zero moisture basis) contained 54.7% cellulose, 2.3% ash (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). The wood ash is said to be rich in alkali. A green, bitter, medicinal resin oozes from the bark. Bark contains tannin and lapachol (Perry, 1980), but the tannin content may be only 2.5% (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).
Description

Evergreen tree, sometimes to 25 m, trunk to 1 m in diameter. Numerous upright pneumatophores rise above soil from long shallow, horizontal roots. Bark brownish-gray, thin, becoming rough and blackish, or outer bark yellowish-green and inner bark whitish. Leaves opposite obovate or broadly oblong, 4–12 cm long, 2–6 cm wide, rounded at tip, acute or rounded at base, thick, leathery, edges slightly rolled under, upper surfaces shiny green and hairless, underneath with fine gray-green hairs and resin dots. Cymes headlike in panicles, upright near ends of twigs, to 15 cm long and wide. Flowers many 2–12 together, sessile, malodorous, 7–10 mm long, 12–15 mm across. Calyx 5-lobed, hairy on edges, with resin dots; corolla bell-shaped, tubular, yellow or yellow-brown, turning orange, with 4 unequal spreading lobes, stamens 4, inserted in notches of corolla tube; ovary conical, hairy, imperfectly 4-celled with 4 ovules, style threadlike; stigma 2-forked. Capsule broadly ovoid, flattened, 2.5 cm long. Seed 1, large, flattened, without seed coat, germinating in water (Little, 1983).
Germplasm

Reported from the African, Australian, Hindustani, and Indonesian-Indochina Centers of Diversity, Indian mangrove, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate alkali, disease, insects, high pH, pest, salt, and waterlogging (NAS, 1980a; Little, 1983).
Distribution

Coasts of southern Asia to Australia and Oceania. From East Pakistan, Tanasserim, Andaman Islands, and Sri Lanka through coasts of Vietnam, Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia to the Philippines, Sumatra, Madura, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Sunda Islands, Molucca Islands, and New Guinea; south in Australia to New South Wales. Near sea level, to 50 m in Papua. Not widely introduced elsewhere (Little, 1983).
Ecology

Estimated to range from Tropical Moist to Wet through Subtropical Moist to Wet Forest Life Zones, Indian mangrove is estimated to tolerate annual precipitation of 10 to 45 dm, annual temperature of 20 to 26°C, and pH of 6 to 8.5. Mostly on brackish or saline silts of depositing shores and marshes.
Cultivation

According to the NAS (1980a), planting is usually not needed because natural regeneration is so successful. In Avicennia and Rhizophora direct seeding result in ca 90% survival.
Harvesting

Since this mangrove can regrow rapidly from buds beneath the bark along the trunk and branches, it is said to suffer little from removal of much of the branchwood (NAS, 1980a).
Yields and Economics

Good mangrove stands can show annual productivity of 10–20(-25) MT/ha/yr, but for firewood purposes, I would reduce that to 10–20(-25) m3/ha/yr, figuring that at optimal rather than average. Because of the heaviness of the wood, a cubic meter of mangrove is generally more valuable than other species. Litterfall may account for 1/3–1/2 of aboveground productivity.

Energy
Brittle wood used for firewood.

Biotic Factors
No data uncovered.

**** www.stuartxchange.com/Api-api.html
**** ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/4902.html

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